In many countries of the world, cases of death of animals and people from rabies are still recorded. The majority of deaths from this disease occur in countries with low levels of health care. Programs are being implemented around the world to combat this deadly disease – raising awareness, mass vaccination of domestic animals, free access to medical, veterinary care for animal bites.
An infectious disease that affects the nervous system of animals, a person after bites by infected animals is called rabies. The bacteria Rabies virus, which develops in the embryos of hens, ducks, cause its development. After entering the body, bacteria multiply rapidly.
In the absence of adequate treatment, an inflammatory process develops in the brain – encephalitis. Lack of timely medical care leads to death in most cases. All warm-blooded people, including humans, are affected. The disease is especially dangerous for children who are more often than adults in contact with domestic, homeless animals.
Virus transmission methods
The virus is carried by animals that have been infected. The virus is transmitted to humans through bites by infected animals, in close contact with dishes, with the saliva of sick dogs, cats, and other animals. Contact with sick individuals is especially dangerous if there is a violation of the integrity of the skin, mucous membranes. In recent years, the danger of the spread of the virus comes from bats. But more often than other animals, wild foxes and dogs spread rabies.
After being bitten by an infected animal, the symptoms of the disease do not appear immediately. Initial signs are localized directly in the bite area. They are expressed in light muscle twitching, pain in the direction of the nerve fibers, itching of the affected area. After add on – panic attacks, painful sensitivity to light, sound, development of subfebrile condition. The incubation period after a bite by an infected animal is from a week to two months. In rare cases, there is a reduction of up to five days, prolongation to one year. An infected animal, a person is able to spread the virus after 2-9 days after a bite and lasts throughout the duration of the disease.
Symptoms and course of the disease
In dogs, several forms of the course of the disease are observed, among which:
- Violent. This form is characterized by a sharp change in the behavioral characteristics of the infected animal. At the site of the bite, itching occurs, eating habits change. The animal is restless, irritable. Difficulty in swallowing gradually arises, abundant salivation begins. The voice wheezes, the animal becomes extremely aggressive, attacks animals, people, birds. After rapidly developing paresis of muscles.
- The silent form is more common. An infected animal does not have increased excitement, on the contrary, fear develops, a depressed state. Later the jaw drops, swallowing is difficult, saliva flows abundantly. The rapid development of paralysis begins, after which death occurs.
- Atypical forms are characterized by the rapid depletion of a sick individual, the development of hemorrhagic seizures, seizures, and upset stool. Aggressive state in lobar animals is absent.
- Recurrent, abortive forms are extremely rare. Symptomatic manifestations with these forms are blurred, the disease ends in recovery.
Symptoms of all warm-blooded are similar. The bodies of dead animals are burned.
Animal bite measures
After a human bite, animals must immediately seek qualified help from infectious disease specialists and veterinarians.
An animal that has bitten a person is subject to capture, isolation. Veterinarians watch him for 10-14 days. If there were no signs of rabies in the animal during this period, there was no rabies virus at the time of the bite in the saliva.
With a positive test for rabies, a person develops strong headaches, muscle pains, hyperthermia, confusion. In the absence of treatment, inflammation of the brain develops, followed by paralysis, convulsions appear later, the person falls into a coma after which death occurs. The most dangerous are bites in the head, face, upper limbs. After a bite of a person by an animal, in cases of alleged infection with rabies virus, mandatory vaccination is performed. It is important that the infected person receive the vaccine within 10-12 days after the suspected infection. The introduction of the vaccine after 14 days from the moment of infection does not give positive results.