Nowadays, the most generally accepted hypothesis is that according to which all dogs are descended from the wolf, and the German shepherd is no exception. If it is true that for its external appearance it recalls the wolf (certainly more than a dachshund or a Pekinese or other shepherd dogs remember it), which earned him the name of “wolfhound“, This does not mean that the German Shepherd is closer to the ancestor for blood: certain Nordic dogs, such as the Siberian Husky, for example, are undoubtedly closer to him than the archetype.
The German Shepherd, whose selected breeding began in 1899, was selected from strains of central and southern German watchdogs, with the goal of creating a high-performance working dog. In order to achieve this goal, the standard of the breed was defined, keeping in mind both its physical constitution and the characteristics of temperament and character.
The German Shepherd is a medium-sized dog with an excellent balanced character. It belongs to the 1st group of dog breeds (Sheepdogs and Cattle Dogs) with reference to section 1, shepherd dogs with working patent and used as a utility, defense and multiple use dog. The weight must be from 30 to 40 kg. for males and from 22 to 32 for females. The height at the ideal withers must be measured with the flattened hair and is 62.5 cm for males and 57.5 cm for females. A difference of 2.5 cm more or less is allowed. An excess towards the top as well as a deviation below the minimum indicated size, decrease the value of the subject both in terms of cost and in the selection.
The German Shepherd is slightly elongated, strong and muscular. He owns a weatherproof coat e it gives the observer an impression of natural strength, intelligence and agility. While possessing an exuberant temperament, the German Shepherd must be obedient, able to adapt to any situation and perform with joy and docility the jobs assigned to him. Overall, this dog gives the impression of a natural nobility and a security that requires respect.
Strong nerves, attention, obedience, vigilance, loyalty and incorruptibility, as well as courage, fighting character and resistance are the qualities that most characterize the German Shepherd. They make this animal a dog particularly suitable for work, guarding, to the company and to the defense in particular. Its olfactory capacity, linked to the trotter structure, allows it to smell slopes calmly and safely keeping your nose close to the ground: it is therefore particularly suitable to be used for the most diverse purposes. But let’s find out better closely.
■ Medium size. Strong and muscular dog
■ Important head
■ Powerful jaws
■ Long neck
■ Black and fawn coat, thick hair
■ Height at the withers: 60-65 cm for males, 55-60 cm for females
■ Weight: approx. 32 kg
■ Average life span: 13 years
■ It is estimated that about one in nine dogs is a German Shepherd, even if only 15% of the total is made up of purebred subjects, carefully selected to highlight the qualities and avoid any character defects.
1. Origin and history
Admired for ductility and intelligence, the German Shepherd embodies the dog par excellence for many dog lovers.
Currently, the German Shepherd is the most widespread breed in the world, although its origin – in the form we know today – is relatively recent.
Only at the end of the last century, in fact, a Prussian cavalry officer, the captain Max Emile Frederic von Stephanitz, who dreamed of creating a synthesis of herding dogs in his country while at the same time fixing their most eminent characteristics, produced the first modern German Shepherd at the end of a particularly rigorous selection and breeding campaign.
Without a doubt, shepherd dogs had existed for centuries in Germany, but their morphology differed considerably according to regions and size; their coat and the texture of their fur sometimes varied considerably from one bloodline to another.
In fact, until then, breeders had little interest in the aesthetic aspect and had above all privileged the search for those qualities of character without which a good shepherd dog is not obtained: calm, obedience, endurance, rusticity.
This empiricism, in contradiction with the systematic and rational mentality of the Germans, could not satisfy the dog lovers for a long time: this is the reason that led to the creation, in 1891, of the first effective association of specialized breeders.
Baptised Phylax by the founders, it aimed to promote and improve the local breeds of sheepdogs, in particular for the creation of an official herd book. But, going from one extreme to the other, she worried excessively about the external characteristics of the breed at the expense of the characters, so that the subjects produced under her guidance were not very satisfactory.
This first attempt was resolved, therefore, with a failure. Relative bankruptcy, after all, because the Phylax in the spirit of amateurs – and in particular in that of von Stephanitz – had given birth to the idea of creating a shepherd dog that could adequately represent his country.
Von Stephanitz’s interest in sheepdogs was therefore far from new when the decisive event occurred: on April 3, 1898, during a dog show that the officer visited in the company of his friend Arthur Meyer, his attention was drawn to a medium-sized yellow and gray subject, keeper of active flocks, which responded to the martial name of Hektor von Linksrheim and that seemed to make a good synthesis of the qualities sought.
Von Stephanitz decided to buy it immediately for his Grafrath kennel. renamed Horand von Grafrath, this dog was to be the progenitor of one of the most prestigious lineages in the history of dog lovers.
A few weeks later, exactly April 22, von Stephanitz founded the Association of German Shepherd Dog Breeders with a group of friends (Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde, also known by the abbreviation abbreviation SV), which he chaired.
For thirty-four years he would thus watch over the fate of the breed and set the objectives and orientations he had defined in the breeding.
In his choices, Max von Stephanitz showed himself at the same time realistic and prudent: his wisdom basically consisted in not excluding any subject from the selection base, as long as he was a local shepherd dog, even if the latter had only relationships very far with the ‘ideal’ animal he imagined.
For von Stephanitz, the external appearance of the animal, the color of its coat or the quality of its fur were absolutely secondary characteristics, the essential was to preserve and fix the ancestral qualities of a working dog: “German Shepherd is any shepherd dog who lives in Germany and who, thanks to a constant exercise of his qualities as a shepherd dog, has achieved perfection in body and psyche, perfection appreciated only from the point of view of utility”.
Notable centralizer, convincing but also rather uncompromising apostle of the cause of the new German Shepherd, von Stephanitz literally subjugated the breeders of his time.
Realizing the importance of regular dog shows, he organized an annual exhibition very early on which he himself had set the rules and classification criteria: thus he came, by example, to show the judges the line they had to follow, but also to guide breeders in choosing their breeding stock.
Gradually, almost imperceptibly, a certain uniformity began to prevail, while any deviationist attempt was systematically frustrated and then corrected by the historical director of the SV (the Association for the German Shepherd).
Thus, after the First World War, when the breeding of the German Shepherd, for obvious reasons, was in crisis and had turned towards subjects in the square and larger than the standard set originally, von Stephanitz did not hesitate to intervene.
Believing, in fact, that he was moving away from the predetermined utility dog, he deliberately chose to go against the current and, in the 1925 Frankfurt show, he ostentatiously rewarded a subject much smaller than the average of the competitors, a dog with an elongated morphology, but rather short.
Klodo von Boxberg, as that dog was called, was immediately taken as a model and used as a breeder by numerous breeders. Many experts believe that it marked the true transition point between the ‘old blood’ and the ‘new blood’.
Very soon von Stephanitz found himself having to face a fundamental problem: with industrialization and urbanization, did the German Shepherd, the shepherd dog par excellence, not risk losing its usefulness? It would have been the height of a breed that had been selected primarily for its working qualities!
Too smart to fight for a very limited specialty, von Stephanitz understood that we had to deal with this evolution, now irreversible, since the beginning of the twentieth century.
Conscious that, in the vast majority, the owners of German Shepherds were no longer rural but rather citizens, von Stephanitz realized that, thanks to his qualities, the German Shepherd could render new services, for example in the army, for the police, post offices, customs, surveillance of hunting estates, ports, railways, but also as a guardian of flocks, of homes and guide of the blind.
So, from 1901, competitions were organized for the police services; in 1903, the Association for the German Shepherd published the regulation for the use and training of the police dog; finally, in July 1914, he organized with the German National Health Service a ‘demonstration of the possibilities of the German Shepherd in conditions similar to war as possible’. This breed has since established itself as one of the most useful for modern man.
2. Character and behavior of the German Shepherd
Synthesis of high physical and psychic abilities, the German Shepherd is not however the ‘perfect dog’ that some of his supporters would like you to believe; however, it must be recognized that, if much more is required of him than other races cannot give, he takes up the challenge honorably.
From a character point of view, the German Shepherd must be attentive, lively, self-confident in all circumstances: he must not show any hesitation in front of man and must be able to control himself perfectly when faced with new or unexpected situations.
A German Shepherd cannot afford to be fearful, aggressive or apathetic; but what strikes in this always alert dog is his intelligence and, above all, his incredible ability to understand what is expected of him, whatever the task assigned to him.
Very attached to the master who has been able to earn his respect and trust, the German Shepherd will do everything to deserve his compliments, without however showing any servility. Very sensitive, in that proud aspect, she will prefer caresses to gluttony at the end of a positive test.
Shepherd dog originally, the German Shepherd naturally needs large spaces to find his balance and meet his significant exercise needs. This great sportsman, with an exceptional shot, impressive power and endurance to the fullest, is the archetype of the action dog.
A priori, therefore, it is not made to live in the home, even if its remarkable adaptability allows it to get used to this lifestyle so far from its natural habitat. However, if the German Shepherd lives in the city, he will have to take long walks, during which he will be able to give free rein to all his energies.
A good guardian, even a little wary (as is required of a good shepherd dog), he has a careful care for the family and the house; and it is not at all ‘bad’, contrary to certain rumors that are told about him, such as that of the ferocious ‘wolf-dog’.
On the contrary, a balanced German Shepherd – and must be in order to meet breed standards – is not aggressive: it is the roles that man often makes him assume that have earned him the reputation of dangerous dog.
In fact, a quality German Shepherd is very thoughtful and much less impulsive than many other dogs in the same group: therefore, in his presence, nothing is risked, provided of course that he does not show bad intentions.
When you want to buy a German Shepherd puppy, you must take into account that the popularity acquired by the breed and, consequently, the economic advantages that could be drawn from its breeding have caused, in a certain period, a real overproduction, to the detriment of the quality of the subjects.
It is therefore necessary to carefully choose the puppy that will become part of the family in a referenced kennel, or in a good specialized shop, and educate it gently but firmly: these simple precautions are the best guarantee for a relationship of affection and friendship successful with an animal that asks nothing more than to put his remarkable qualities at the service of his master.
It must be remembered, however, that even if a German Shepherd can be very sweet and affectionate with children, he does not always manage to measure his strength. For this reason it is perhaps not the ideal playmate for the little ones.
This dog is also quite exclusive in his affections and it is advisable to ‘introduce him’ to the new born that enters the house, so that he understands that he is not a rival but a child to protect. To be truly happy the German Shepherd needs the presence of his master.
3. Use and training
– The use of the German Shepherd
The character, the morphology, the aptitude for learning, the ability to withstand any climate: all these qualities make the German Shepherd a dog that is well suited to any training.
German Shepherds still used to lead a flock are rare, even if it is precisely this use that has developed their multi-purpose skills today recognized and appreciated everywhere. For its smell, the German Shepherd is also used for the most unexpected tasks,
in particular in the United States: search for minerals, insects, gas or oil leaks. Finally, it stands out in various canine sports: track racing, in the countryside, etc.
Without wishing to draw up a complete list of roles that it supports with great success, we note here the main tasks for which it is used.
• The army.
Watchdog, accompanying, lookout, transmission, combat, ammunition, track, mine marker, first aid: all armies in the world, or almost, employ the German Shepherd today. Certain subjects
they are even trained, as a suicide bomber, to put mines under the enemy’s chariots.
The German Shepherd plays a considerable role in search missions for missing persons or fleeing criminals. We also remember a task that often brought him to the front pages of newspapers due to the recent numerous attacks:
that of the search for explosives.
The missions entrusted to him in this field are very varied: they range from border surveillance to drug search, or to the capture of smugglers.
• The disabled.
The best known role for the German Shepherd in this field is that of a guide dog for the blind, a function in which he is required to recognize and avoid any situation that can be a source of danger for the owner. But the Shepherd
German is also used today as a dog for deaf-mutes, a specialty in which it is achieving good results.
The German Shepherd has long since supplanted the traditional Saint Bernard in this field. Search for skiers and climbers buried in the snow or simply dispersed and bring them to their aid: it can also be transported by helicopter to
more inaccessible places, as long as in the company of its owner.
• Relief in catastrophes.
Able to work in the most dangerous conditions and endowed with a very fine sense of smell, the German Shepherd is a precious help after earthquakes, bombings or attacks. On these occasions it is much more effective than the most modern means in
civil protection equipment.
• The cinema.
Thanks to his obedience, the German Shepherd has played important roles in numerous films: who does not remember Rintintin? And it is also thanks to cinema that this breed has made itself known to the general public.
– The training of the German Shepherd
Since the German Shepherd is an intelligent, attentive and disciplined dog, his training does not present particular difficulties. However, if you are not an expert, it is good to turn to professionals. The education of the German Shepherd must begin around 7 or 8 months. To properly train a German Shepherd are sufficient 10 lessons, during which, always accompanied by his master, but under the educator’s orders, the dog will learn the essential notions that will make him a well-educated companion: the conduct on a leash, the reference to the foot, the habit of responding to one’s name and the traditional, but no less necessary, commands “seated” and “come forward”.
When the dog has correctly assimilated these first rudiments, the educator passes to the improvement, in all situations: first of all on the track, where the German Shepherd learns to jump, to bark at the passage of a stranger, etc .; then in the fields and woods (we must not forget that if the Belgian Shepherd Malinois is considered the “formula 1” of the track, the German Shepherd is stronger in open spaces); later in the city, where he will have to get used to the sounds of cars, the coming and going of people, etc. In short, he will be inserted in all those environments in which his personality must then develop. The exercises can then begin defense proper: the trainer will instruct the Shepherd German to guard a house, a car, defend children etc.
All trainers agree on one point: this training must be felt as a pleasure from the animal, otherwise the result may be opposite to the desired one. In 10 hours, therefore, the young German Shepherd will be transformed into a balanced and effective defense dog. In fact, a guard or defense dog must in no case be an aggressive dog: contrary to popular belief, aggression is not part of the nature of the German Shepherd.
The trainers’ mission is to teach us to dissuade any attackers, not to attack them. A mission and a rule that every good dog trainer has very clear in mind. Only after all this can the competition begin and take on its main duties, from a long list of roles that he supports with great success (army, police, customs, disabled people, mountain and disaster relief, etc.).
– To remember
■ It needs space
■ Love the skill and obedience exercises
■ He is a sportsman
■ Has a strong appetite
■ Stay calm in the car
■ Is very attached to the owner
■ Has remarkable strength
■ Average cost
4. Space, nutrition, health, and more
– Space, nutrition, health and care
■ Its space
The more space he has, the happier he is; however, being very adaptable, it adapts easily to the needs of the owner and can live without problems even in the apartment, as long as he can go out often and take long walks, not
simply four steps below the house!
■ Its power
It is a dog with a robust appetite! A 30 kg person eats about 600 grams of meat, 300 grams of boiled vegetables and 300 grams of boiled or puffed and rehydrated rice every day, all wet with a nice bowl of water. There
ration will be administered divided into two meals, which must be offered to him at fixed times. It is not recommended to give him leftovers from lunch or dinner, especially fried, too fatty or spicy foods.
Robust dog the German Shepherd is not less subject to various diseases. Some are more frequent in him than in other breeds, and it is good to know them.
The weakness of the hind limbs it can have 2 main causes: both a progressive degeneration of the spinal cord, which results in a deficiency of the nerve conduction and affects mainly the older subjects, and what is called hip dysplasia and which is characterized by an anomaly of this joint which causes very severe pain and induces the appearance of osteoarthritis. If it is true that this disease has hereditary components, it must not be forgotten that it can be favored by other factors, in particular excessive weight gain, too intense physical activity during growth, unhealthy living conditions in cold or humid rooms , etc. In case of doubt, it is highly recommended to have it performed an X-ray of checks at the animal’s pelvis.
The Association for the German Shepherd, moreover, requires this examination for all specimens registered for dog shows. The treatment of hip dysplasia is based on palliative medical therapies, to reduce pain, and surgical interventions, ranging from resection of the pectinus, to osteoctomy of the head of the femur, to the implantation of a hip prosthesis. We point out that the German Shepherd is far from being the dog most frequently affected by hip dysplasia, and that breed associations, both in Germany and in other countries, have long since started a fight program in this disease, fight made difficult by the fact that environmental conditions seem to be decisive as hereditary factors.
eczema is manifested by the appearance of itching and skin lesions, especially on the back. Hair falls out and formation occurs of purulent exudate which when dried forms crusts. Eczema can have different causes; one of them is the allergic reaction to flea bites. The fact of permanently wearing an effective flea collar is the best prevention in this case.
Panninous keratitis it is an autoimmune disease. It presents with an inflammation of the cornea. Treated early, this disease can be satisfactorily controlled, although it often tends to relapse. Chronic diarrhea it is due to insufficient production of enzymes by the pancreas. Specific tests and stool tests allow to confirm the diagnosis and to define which type of food is poorly digested. It is therefore advisable to modify the diet and possibly use substances that aid digestion.
It is not the type of dog that needs frequent bathing and grooming: it is a rustic subject that would feel uncomfortable. Nonetheless, it takes a good daily brushing, whether it is long or half-long.
At first it is treated with a metal tooth brush on a rubber background and then a metallic comb with wide and rounded teeth is passed. It is advisable to brush the dog while standing, starting from the rear train and proceeding from
bottom to top; then she lies down and brushes her hips. It is important to keep your teeth under control so that tartar does not form, as well as regularly clean your ears. Finally, if you notice that the eyes are red or
tear, it is good to get an eye drop from the vet.
– The ABC of the perfect master
■ Maintain a coherent relationship immediately, do not let him make mistakes and try not to make any mistakes towards him. Never use violence and never get angry; if you are loyal and not vindictive to him, he will do the same to you.
■ Be firm and, if necessary, inflexible: if you make a decision towards him, do not change it because he is sulking or whims.
■ If a German Shepherd feels a weakness or an uncertainty in guiding him, he loses trust and respect: his behavior could degenerate.
■ Remember that this dog prefers a thousand times to receive caresses, cuddles and sweet words, rather than a handful of croquettes, however appetizing they may be.
■ The dog is used to respecting the herd hierarchy; do not disappoint him: he is the one who must obey!
■ Never resort to violence.
■ Do not exalt its power and aggression: you would make it a monster or a dangerous robot.
■ If you need to be away for a few days, fill him with attention before leaving and on his return.
■ He loves moving and running a lot, take him out and play sports together. Being a born guardian, he will appreciate that all visitors are introduced, even those passing through.
– True False
■ The female is sweeter and more affectionate than the male.
True. Equipped with equal intelligence and equal courage, she is more generous than her companion. Very close to the family, she often proves to be the most diligent and attentive guardian.
■ Cannot live with a cat.
False. He defends and loves all the inhabitants of the house equally, as long as he feels directly responsible.
■ The German Shepherd is a sports dog.
True. The German Shepherd can become very nervous and irritable if he doesn’t do a lot of exercise. He is an athlete who does not like spending his time on the carpet in the living room. When choosing a dog of this type you must be equally sporty! He loves the snow and, when going skiing, it is good to take it with him: along not too long or impervious slopes, he happily follows the master first along the ski lift and then downhill! However, he must be well educated and not chase other skiers or cause falls by running around on the track.
5. The Standard
The Standard is officially established by the Society for the German Shepherd Dog (S.V.), based in Augsburg, a member of the German Dog Society (VDH), as the founder of the breed and responsible for the German Shepherd Dog Standard. It was reviewed and defined during the session of 30 August 1976 by the World Union of Societies for the German Shepherd (WUSV), in accordance with what was officially established by the Society for the German Shepherd Dog (S.V.). The SV, as the founder of the breed, is responsible for the German Shepherd standard, established during the first assembly of members on September 20, 1899 in Frankfurt am Main according to the proposals made by A. Meyer and von Stephanitz, and completed during the sixth assembly of members of 28 July 1901, from the 23 assembly of 17 September 1909 in Cologne, from the meeting of the Presidency Council held on 5 September 1930 in Wiesbaden and from the meeting of the same council of 25 March 1961 in the framework of the WUSV. It was subsequently reworked within the World Union of German Shepherd Dog Societies (WUSV) and approved on the occasion of the WUSV session of 30 August 1976, and then still revised and cataloged with resolution of 23/24 March 1991 by part of the Council and the Advisory Commission.
Angle and movement:
The German Shepherd is a trotter. Its movement takes place through a diagonal bipedal: it always supports an opposite front and rear leg simultaneously; for this reason, its limbs must be mutually harmonized, that is, angled in such a way that it can move the hind limb up to half of the body and at the same time the opposite front of the same distance without displacement of the back line. between height and length and a corresponding length of the limbs, a wide movement follows, bordering on the ground, which gives the impression that the dog is moving forward without any effort; with the head pushed forward and the tail slightly raised, in a calm and regular trotter a straight and elastic dorsal line is observed that goes from the tip of the ears, passing through the back and the nape, up to the end of the tail.
Proportioned to the body (the length corresponds to about 40% of the height at the withers) without being squat, too light or too elongated. Overall dry, moderately broad between the ears. The forehead seen from the front and from the side is only slightly curved without a median sulcus (or with a slightly accentuated median sulcus). The slightly rounded and not protruding cheeks are modeled on the bones. Seen from above, the skull (about 50% of the total length of the head) extends from the ears towards the nose, shrinking uniformly. The muzzle seen from above develops, long and dry, in a conical shape; the stop is not very marked; the mouth is powerful; lipsthey are tense, dry and well joined. The nasal bridge continues the forehead line.
It must be healthy, robust and complete (42 teeth, 20 in the upper jaw and 22 in the lower jaw). The German Shepherd has scissor teeth. The jaws must be very developed so that the teeth are placed deep in the gums.
Of medium size, wide at the base, attached high, they are carried straight (oriented in the same direction), end pointed and have the pavilions forward. Bent or cut ears are not allowed. Ears that are not in the right position damage the image of the subject.
Medium, almond-shaped, not prominent. The color conforms to that of the fur, as dark as possible. They have a lively, intelligent expression and express security.
The neck is strong with well developed muscles, without dewlap. It is carried at an angle of about 45 ° with respect to an ideal horizontal line, it stands up in case of excitement and lowers during the trot.
The length of the trunk must exceed the measurement of the height at the withers, in a ratio of about 110-117% with the latter. The chest is well descended (45-48% of the height of the withers) but not too wide. The lower part is long and well developed. The ribs are long and well formed and the belly moderately retracted. The loins wide, strong and well muscled while the rump is long and slightly inclined.
Thick and hairy, it must reach at least up to the hock and not exceed half of the posterior metatarsal. It must never be carried higher than the horizontal of the back and must not even hang straight or be curled on the back. The artificially cut tail is not allowed.
limbs : Shoulder : long shoulder blades, oblique (inclination at about 45 °) and adherent.
Arm : the humerus closes almost at right angles. Both the arm and the shoulder must be strong and muscular.
Forearm : it is straight. The bones of the humerus and forearm have a more oval and rounded shape.
Metacarpus : solid but not too straight.
Elbows : neither too loose nor too tight. The length of the limbs must exceed that of the depth of the chest.
HINDQUARTERS : Thighs : broad, powerful and muscular.
Femur : seen from the side it is oblique towards the tibia, which is slightly longer, and joins it with an angle of about 120 °; the angle corresponds more or less to the angle of the forelimbs.
Hock : solid and vigorous.
Metatarsus : robust with well-defined hock. The hind limbs must be powerful and well muscled as a whole, so as to advance the dog’s body without apparent fatigue.
Arched, short, well closed and collected. The plant is very hard but not rough, the short and thick nails of dark color.
Black with regular brown, yellow and light gray spots, or with black saddle with dark shades, black traces on a gray or light brown base with relative light spots, black, solid gray or with light or brown spots. Small white spots on the chest or on the inside of the very light hips are allowed. Whatever the color of the coat, the truffle must be black. The undercoat, clear, except for black dogs, always has a slight gray color.
German Shepherd with hair : if possible the hair must be very thick. Every single hair must be straight, hard and well adherent to the body. The head, including the inside of the ears, the front of the limbs and fingers, must have the shortest hair, while the neck must have the longest and thickest hair. The length of the hair is variable, and numerous intermediate forms can be found.
German Shepherd with long hard hair: the single hair is longer, not always straight and above all not close to the body. In particular, inside and behind the ears, on the inside of the forearm and on the sides, the hair is much longer; it sometimes forms tufts inside the ears and fringes from the elbows to the metacarpals. The tail is thick with a slight fringe at the bottom.
Long haired German Shepherd: the hair is much longer than that of the long-haired dog, generally softer, and forms a parting along the back. The undercoat is present only in the lumbar region, or even non-existent. Long-haired German Shepherd dogs often have a narrow chest and weak teeth: resistance to bad weather and aptitude for work decrease. For this reason, longhair is not allowed in the German Shepherd.
All defects that compromise endurance and performance, in particular the lack of the sex mark and the typical character, such as apathy, nervous weakness or hyperexcitability, shyness, lack of liveliness and pleasure in the job , monorchidia or cryptorchidia, a soft constitution or a weak depigmentation, depigmented subjects, albinos (with total lack of pigment and pink truffle), whitish subjects (of an almost pure white even if with black truffle), of excessive size, of delicate shapes, subjects too high on the limbs or too heavy in the front, too short as a whole, a body structure that is too light or too heavy, a soft back, a lack of angle and all those defects that can affect resistance or amplitude gait. The muzzle too short, weak, pointed, enognatismo, prognatismo and above all a weak or deteriorated dentition; hair too short or too long and lack of undercoat. Hanging ears, badly worn or cut; tail rolled up, or folded into a hook or generally poorly worn or short from birth.