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Dobermann: Origin | Facts | Size | Heights | Weights

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Dobermann: Origin | Facts | Size | Heights | Weights

Dobermann does not know what fear is, suspicious of strangers, self-assured, constantly alert, and from the moment of danger he bravely knows ny situation.

The Dobermann, born and selected exclusively for the protection of property and people, is a very animal observer, equipped with a remarkable memory, with great adaptability, he understands everything quickly and almost manages to predict, to guess, what his master doesn’t tell him.

Its great sense of loyalty it gives him the strength to risk his life for that of his master and his family. A very intelligent sensitive dog, with a great desire to learn.

He has a formidable instinct for the defense guard which makes his training easy and enjoyable.

It is a dog that can live peacefully even at home, its short hair leads it to be also very clean, but requires considerable physical activity, it will have to be taken daily for long walks to exhaust its energies.

In any case, a nice garden and the possibility of entering the house especially at night would be the ideal solution. The female is more suitable for apartment life (the male is more impetuous, intelligent, agitated and requires greater firmness; the female is more peaceful, incredibly sensitive, affectionate in the family and suspicious of strangers).

The Dobermann was born and still lives, still today, under the sign of passion. His temperament cannot be satisfied with compromises or half measures and, for this reason, arouses opposite reactions in human beings: on the one hand he is the victim of prejudices, on the other he is energetically defended by his supporters.

We all know it in its ‘dark’ version, but there is also a version of white dobermann, or albino dobermann and even a blue dobermann.

Contrary to the reputation that is all too often attributed to it, the Dobermann is not a difficult dog but a demanding dog, which must be taken seriously.

Today we will get to know this extraordinary breed better: undoubtedly one of the most beautiful, elegant, sensitive, intelligent, proud and balanced in the canine world.

1. Origin and history

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The Dobermann is a breed that has existed for just over a century: the first specimens appeared towards the 1885 that is to say about ten years before two other famous breeds, the German Shepherd and the Boxer.

On the other hand, there is a fundamental difference between these dogs: the German Shepherd and the Boxer can in fact boast of being the modern result of an ancient type of dog, a wolf shepherd in the first case, a fighting Molosser in the second, while the Dobermann represents a truly new type (it would be really difficult to find a similar dog in ancient writings or paintings).

The very name of the breed reveals its originality in the canine world, since it is that of its creator, a certain Friedrich Ludwig Dobermann (1834-1894), often described both as the manager of a municipal warehouse and as a bailiff from the city of Apolda in Thuringia.

In fact, this municipal employee cumulated multiple functions: he controlled the slaughterhouses, dealt with the slaughter of animals, hunted stray dogs, collected taxes, rents and various fees. In short, the burgomaster of Apolda charged him with all sorts of thankless and difficult tasks.

Due to his role, it is likely that Dobermann did not find many friends among the late taxpayers or among the citizens forced to pay a fine. In addition to this, when he circulated on horseback in this mountainous and forested corner of Thuringia, carrying sums of money that were sometimes substantial, he ran the risk of being attacked by some thug.

It was therefore natural that he had decided to be accompanied by dogs of character, capable of coming to his aid if necessary. Probably he had been able to notice some of those he had brought to the kennel or with whom he had dealt in the farms where he had been received unfriendly.

This selection, a little rudimentary, was however effective … Moreover, having access to the slaughterhouses, given his profession, he had no problem feeding a large pack of dogs with great appetite.

We don’t know which dog he adopted to create the breed that bears his name, since he has not left any written notes about his selection. On the other hand, at the beginning he probably did not have in mind to create a new breed, but limited himself to crossing dogs that had the characteristics that interested him.

The fame that these animals gained in the region, however, gave a turn to the story, since numerous dog lovers were interested in the specimen that, however empirically, he had obtained.

Given the lack of documentation about Friedrich Ludwig Dobermann’s experiments, the specialists had to settle for conjectures to try to reconstruct the path and trace the origins of the dog that we know today.

The French, therefore, given its black coat and fire, thought of theirs Beauceron. It can easily be argued that the morphological characteristics of the two breeds are quite different, but the French breeders of the 1920s had not selected a clearly “Dobermanized” Bas-Rouge, that is, refined and short-haired, almost satin?

To explain the presence of the French dog in Thuringia, it was speculated that some specimens had been left there by the Napoleonic armies during their campaigns.

It must be recognized, however, that this theory, although rewarding for the French nationalists, is above all a manifestation of the Germanophobia of that time, the same which led to denying against all evidence the German origin of the German Shepherd who preferred to be defined … Alsatian !

It must also be said that France did not have a monopoly on black and fire-coated dogs. They were also present beyond the Rhine, where they had given rise to the Rottweiler and the Hovawart and had been the ancestors of the German Shepherds themselves; therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that in part they are also responsible for the color and size of the Dobermann.

The latter, however, also recalls another dog, the Pinscher, which in the nineteenth century Germany was among the most widespread: when the use of the horse, saddle or draft was still very common, you could not do without on every farm and in the stables of such a formidable rodent hunter.

The Pinscher – whose name derives from English “to pinch”, “grab, grab” – in fact it can be considered the German version of the French mouse dogs and the English Terrier. Its origins are lost over time: the morphological type can in fact be combined with that of the Canis palustris, well known thanks to archeology.

This extraordinary “hunter” could have been coitus or striated, of a tawny, black or wolf-gray tint. The shaggy-haired Pinscher, i.e. the Schnauzer, soon met with great success, while the shaggy-haired Pinscher could only perpetuate itself through the Dobermann. The latter, in fact, which was originally significantly given the name of Pinscher, was characterized before the middle Pinscher.

It is therefore legitimate to consider the Dobermann as a sort of giant Pinscher: it had the same fighting qualities – up to biting – and liveliness of the German mouse dog, with the addition of a larger size that allowed him to become a dog guard and defense.

The idea of ​​obtaining a giant Terrier was also widespread at that time and, while in Great Britain it had brought to Airale, in Munich the first giant Schnaiuzer were created. The oldest depictions of Dobermann seem to confirm the role of the Pinscher in its origin.

F. L. Dobermann had in fact probably recognized in this rare one those qualities of courage and bite he was looking for. Of this opinion was the German magazine Unsere Hunde (cited by J. Mézières and A. Whilhelm, authors of reference works for this breed), who, in the December 1898 issue, wrote:

“Around 1870, Dietsch, then owner of the Apolda sandboxes, owned a gray-blue bitch, a sort of Pinscher who had a black Boucher mount it. This breeder already had the characteristic fire-colored patches and came from a cross between a dog as a shepherd and a Boucher Dobermann, who died prematurely for our misfortune, met descendants of these two specimens, who had become good hunting dogs, with German Pinschers. This is the origin of the current Dobermann. Since it was he who first selected them, we do not see why these dogs cannot perpetuate their name “.

If the Pinscher ascendant is recognized, there are another half dozen breeds that have – or would have – competed in this explosive cocktail known as Dobermann.

Looking at one with drooping ears (this is their normal shape when they are not cut) we can assume a contribution of German Bracco or del Weimaraner, which, in addition to having the role of finding, stopping and bringing back game, also served to eliminate harmful animals and to guard the game bag.

When Dobermann is attributed this aggressive character, one has to ask who is responsible for it.

To explain Dobermann’s elegance, some have thought of Greyhound. A bitch is often mentioned Greyhound (English greyhound) with black coat and very aggressive temperament. The German Great Dane also returns among his probable ancestors because of the size and the bluish complexion that he would have transmitted to him.

This is possible if we keep in mind that, at the end of the nineteenth century, this dog was less gigantic than it is today: in fact, the male was between 75 and 80 centimeters.

Finally, blood from the Dobermann veins would also flow Black and Tan Terrier (black and fire) which would have refined the morphology and would have been decisive for the fire color.

The fate of this breed would have been different if Mr. Dobermann’s friends and followers had not continued the work. In particular, the role of Otto Göller in the passage from the rude primitive Dobermann – compact, of medium size (from 50 to 60 cm), with a large and short head – to the superb athlete we know today: undoubtedly one of the most beautiful specimens of the whole dog breed.

Another founding father of the breed, Goswin Tischler, took care of the fate of these animals by founding a famous kennel, named “von Groenland”, named after a street in Apolda.

The first specimens collected by FL Dobermann – Lux, Landgraf, Rambo, Schnupp (the number one in the book of the new breed) – were thus added the specimens of Tischlen to his dogs Bosco and Caesi, for example, gave birth to the first champion of the breed , Prinz Matzi von Groenland, born on August 15, 1895.

Otto Göller, known as “von Thuringen”, obtained specimens from 1901. Hellegraf von Thuringen, born on 12 June 1904, stands out among his breeders, considered the patriarchs of the breed. Previously he had had a specimen from Tischler who thanks to him a remarkable runner turned out to be: Graf Belling.

In 1910, with the birth of two other great runners, Bodo and Bob von Egenfeld, with a head shaped and elegant almost as much as that of the current Dobermann, the training period of the breed ends.

After this date, several mergers with other breeds were attempted, with uneven results: the Manchester Terrier, for example, it has given a contribution of elegance and more decisive and regular colors, but also greater fragility.

Thus the English Greyhound led to a taller stature, but also to a flat ribcage and an excessive lengthening of the body. These crossbreeds had had unwanted effects that breeders strove to eliminate in the interwar period.

The choice was between two orientations: to preserve the original qualities of tenacity and courage proper to the breed and which have now become legendary, or to go towards a dog with a more refined character and morphology. All in all the first solution was chosen.

The Dobermann soon conquered a large number of fans in Germany and therefore in Europe. This rapid affirmation, rarely remarked, confirms the breed’s potential since its inception. The first club was founded by Otto Göller in Apolda in 1899.

Soon a dozen other associations sprang up, particularly in southern Germany, which they traced to join a national federation in 1912. Given its ability to conquer the public, the Dobermann was soon presented in exhibitions.

After the Germans, the Swiss were the most diligent; by founding a club in Arau as early as 1902 they showed their appreciation for this dog with a clear silhouette, undemanding and with a strong character.

The Dutch got in step in 1909 and were the first to notice its adaptability to the tropical climate, taking it to their distant colonies, particularly in the Philippines. In the same period the Alsacians discovered it and a first local club was founded in 1913.

A club for the whole national territory was instead inaugurated in 1920 in Strasbourgbut they had to wait until the 1960s for this dog to be present in most of the French regions.

The Americans learned at their own expense the qualities of valiant fighter of this dog, employed by the German army in the First World War; with the pragmatism that distinguishes them, after the end of the conflict they bought good breeding animals so that the race would also settle in with them: thus the American club was born in 1922.

Austria and Italy have also opened their doors to Dobermann, followed by hot countries such as Uruguay and Brazil which have made them their favorite watchdogs.

Britain, for once, came last. Due to the sixty-day quarantine, mandatory in this country, and the ban on cutting the ears (which significantly changes the physiognomy of the dog), the breed only settled there in 1947.

So, since the Dobermann became known it was almost always appreciated immediately and has become one of the most skilled and widespread guard dogs in the world.

2. Behavior


Conceived for work, the Dobermann was relegated to this function, for private and non-private use, for the first quarter of the 20th century.

It was the maximum in terms of courage, tenacity and timeliness, and to enhance these qualities those who used it had a tendency to exaggerate them, helping to create the reputation of a difficult, hard and poorly controllable dog.

In the twenties a famous Swiss breeder, Gottfried Licehti, expressed this attitude well by saying: “They were strong and feared nothing – not even the devil himself – and you had to have courage to keep one.”

Philipp Gruenig, historian of the breed, expresses himself in the same tone speaking of Alarich von Thuringen, born in 1897: “He was known for his incredible intelligence, which led to fear him even more».

It is true that intelligence combined with a certain hardness characterizes these dogs, but there is no need to talk about “absolute” audacity or “incredible” intelligence, as if he wanted to do it, with the complicity of the color of their coat, of evil creatures.

These exaggerations must be interpreted in the context in which they originated: at that time there was indeed great competition between German breeds selected simultaneously for similar jobs, but starting from different “families”: German Shepherd, Boxer, Rottweiler and Dobermann competed for the title of best guard and defense dog.

Today this representation corresponds only partially to reality: if the Dobermann, employed in police operations, is a working dog and successfully takes part in competitions for defense dogs, it must be borne in mind that only a small part of the dogs of this breed it is actually used in these sectors, while the others, for the happiness of their owners, remain for the most part those who are pleasantly seated in an armchair or on a soft cushion, some walking in the car, some running around the gardens, some taking care of their puppies.

Of course it must not be concluded that Dobermann suits any master and in every situation. This dog, not particularly nervous, is never bad – or simply aggressive – for no reason. It is a balanced animal, albeit of character.

The owner of a Dobermann cannot and must not be that of a Poodle. To prove its multiple possibilities, this dog requires that his owner also own some of them. Anyone who does not understand this breed and has never had a dog of this temperament is better than starting his adventure with a female.

More malleable, outgoing and docile, however, it has the same vigilance as the male. Those who, despite lacking extensive experience as a trainer, have a steady (but not brutal) hand and feeling with dogs will find great gratifications by measuring themselves with the decisive character of a male Dobermann.

However, one condition is necessary: ​​the velvet glove must be combined with the iron fist, that is, be very calm and patient. We therefore have no qualms about advising this dog against the unrealistic, the good-natured and those who are reluctant to give prose of authority.

A good master must know the deep nature of Dobermann well. It’s about a ruler: if the inexperienced person does not discover this characteristic in his three-month-old puppy, he will see it come out in the eight-month-old teenager.

The dog is simply trying to become a leader, which he sometimes succeeds in: he just needs to make himself heard and show his teeth to achieve his goal. It is therefore essential not to be impressed by these intimidations: the owner must be fair but inflexible.

This combination of justice and authority will appear all the more necessary the more it is taken into account that pride and the spirit of independence are two other characteristics of Dobermann. Although he is still very attached to the owners, this dog often tends to do his own thing when he is brought up without the necessary firmness.

Training on walking with a leash and without, therefore, on recall, must be conducted with rigor. Many owners of Dobermann rather than walking their dogs are carried around by the latter!

The pride of the Dobermann, which constitutes one of the most fascinating traits, is manifested in its own features: the majesty with which he poses the head and the confident gait well reveal his temperament, which at least can be defined as reserved.

It is certainly not part of those dogs that party to strangers and remains insensitive to compliments, perhaps a little forced, of any guests. It is evident that this distant attitude presupposes the presence of the master.

Otherwise, the dog will be much more active – intractable if not downright fierce – in surveillance of the house or car. Since his instinct to protect the territory is innate and overdeveloped. his vigilance is never surprised by a moment of distraction.

In this field, no specific training is necessary: ​​the dog reacts spontaneously. It naturally extends its protection to all those who live in the family environment, in particular to children, who, for their part, will have to learn to respect his presence.

With the other dogs, the Dobermann does not necessarily seek the fight, but in no case will he let himself be dominated. So, out of prudence, it is better to avoid opportunities for confrontation.

The Dobermann, born and selected exclusively for the protection of property and people, it is a very observant animal, with a remarkable memory, with great adaptability, he understands everything quickly and almost manages to predict, to guess, what his master doesn’t tell him.

He therefore has a great aptitude for training, even if his psychology is very different from that of the Sheepdogs, who are often a point of reference for trainers; since it has much less the sense of the hierarchy of a Shepherd Dog, it always maintains a dominant background, as well as a certain tendency towards independence, which must be controlled and contained.

To easily channel his skills, the trainer will have to manage his susceptibility, take into account his innate pride and above all motivate him, as the Dobermann is a passionate dog, who does not work well except for the love of his master.

Contrary to the reputation that is all too often attributed to it, the Dobermann is not a difficult dog but a demanding dog, which must be taken seriously.

In his country of origin, but also in the United States and in many other countries, including Italy, the Dobermann has as a favorite discipline the Schutzhund or ZTP (mandatory in Germany for the qualification of breeder).

The Germans, who have exported their defense dogs extensively, have managed at the same time to impose their work program, consisting of tests of obedience, docility, mordacity and defense of the owner, almost everywhere in the world.

Also the track it is a test in which the Dobermann can prove himself – several specimens have reached the highest levels in recent years. In this type of competition it finds the opportunity to demonstrate its sense of initiative and to give its best by using its natural enthusiasm and flair; training in this discipline (accessible to beginners) is of great psychological interest as it strengthens connivance with the owner.

Without a doubt it is in the ring that the Dobermann is less comfortable. His athletic abilities are obviously not questioned, but his bite is not very suitable for the needs of this discipline: the dog must in fact achieve a solid grip, with the whole mouth, for about fifteen seconds, while the Dobermann has, for its part, the tendency to bite for later grips, with the front teeth.

Job competitions only concern, for obvious reasons, a limited number of dogs; therefore, most Dobermanns do not have such an opportunity to vent their energies. Now, their balance imperatively requires intense physical activities; we must therefore offer them long walks and frequent (but short) exercises.

It would be decidedly aberrant to leave these legal dogs to a chain, or locked up in a kennel, or even make them guardians of a deposit, as the Dobermann needs human contact: as varied and early as possible, these contacts are essential to “civilize” the young Dobermann and will not disturb his vigilance at all. On the contrary, if sentenced to isolation, the animal risks becoming difficult to control.

From the point of view of health, the Dobermann is a robust, elegant dog full of “substance”. It has no particular weaknesses; at most, a certain sensitivity to skin diseases and external parasites can be detected in some specimens (especially in the very rare and beautiful blue and tan specimens).

Therefore, a relative frequency of heart disease, a problem common to many sports races, full of enthusiasm and power. Calculating the dogs victims of heart disease, the average longevity of a Dobermann that is a dozen years old, can drop to about ten years (specimens that reach the age of fourteen are rather rare).

Strict life hygiene throughout its existence and increased attention and surveillance since reaching the age of six to eight are therefore recommended.

The Dobermann was born and still lives, still today, under the sign of passion. His temperament cannot be satisfied with compromises or half measures and, for this reason, arouses opposite reactions in human beings: on the one hand he is a victim of prejudices, on the other he is energetically defended by his supporters.

3. Living space, nutrition, health, care and the abc of the perfect master


■ Living space
As has been said, he is a sportsman: the power with which he runs, the elegance of his stride are special!
Although he is not a dog made for the apartment, in order to be close to the owner he will also willingly accept a studio, but it would be better to offer him a garden.
If trained properly, it will not loot your flower beds and make holes in the lawn. His favorite activity will always remain to stand guard, with his eye fixed on the road.
Its muzzle must not be able to pass outside the gate, since if an imprudent hand approaches it tends to bite, on several occasions, with the front teeth.
It is advisable to build a nice, dry and comfortable kennel in the garden; in fact, he will be delighted to have his own corner where he can be independent. He will bring you all “his” personal items, especially while growing up.
But be careful: you must prevent children from approaching him when he gnaws a bone. The Dobermann must maintain moments of intimacy, to be absolutely respected.

■ Power supply

This dog always has a good appetite. A 40 kg Dobermann willingly devours 600 g of meat every day, 300 of vegetables and 300 of rice, plus supplements.
You should always choose the largest bowl, even if its daily dose must be divided into two parts. If the Dobermann carries out many sports activities, the amount of protein must be increased.
It is also possible to feed it with canned food: your partner will be at the table with equal pleasure.

■ Health

On the veterinary level, it is a solid dog, but it can be weak in the intestine, especially in winter.
Note in some cases a sensitivity to skin diseases and external parasites (especially among the rare and beautiful blue and fawn specimens). Finally, we report the relative frequency of cardiac accidents, a problem common to many very lively dog ​​breeds.
It must therefore maintain a very rigorous life hygiene throughout its existence (it must not make too intense efforts) and be supervised when it reaches six or eight years of age.

■ Cure

Its short, hard, well-fitting hair only requires brushing every now and then. We must not forget to clean his ears, especially if he often goes out in the countryside, to cut his nails, and to wash his splendid
teeth, which must always keep very white.


“They were robust specimens and were not afraid of anything, not even of the devil himself, and a good dose of courage was needed to possess one” in the 1920s wrote a renowned Swiss breeder, Gottfried Liechti.
At that time, the daredevil side, the tenacity and the speed of intervention of the Dobermann were exalted, tending to magnify his qualities.
Breeders were proud of this rude and unfriendly dog, “with absolute audacity and incredible intelligence”. He became a mythical animal, he was feared and admired at the same time.

At the time, the Dobermann suffered competition from other German breeds. Together with the German Shepherd, the Boxer and the Rottweiler, in fact, he aspired to the title of best guard and defense dog.

Of course Dobermann’s supporters had every interest in magnifying certain traits of his character, highlighting only his desire to win. Today this image partially corresponds to reality.

Although it has been and remains a valuable aid to the army, police and customs services, it is not a dangerous dog, provided that it is properly educated.

Trained firmly and lovingly, it reveals its many qualities. Those who have no experience with defense dogs should get help from a professional.
His role? To be useful! Once educated, he will spend his time rolling between one cushion and another in the living room, or he will accompany you on the car trips through the city. This dog dedicated to work can also enjoy the small pleasures of everyday life.

When it comes to rendering a service, the Dobermann is always present: he brings the newspaper, the slippers, everything that the owner may like. A simple caress of thanks fills him with joy.

And what about strangers? The almost exclusive attachment to the owner and family makes him very suspicious of strangers. It is not usual to celebrate the guests and it is quite insensitive to their signs of cordiality.
But once the ice is broken, it becomes more condescending. All newcomers to the house must be introduced to him.

Obedience to the master’s orders is essential to avoid accidents, but guests should avoid shouting at him or trying to socialize.

The ABC of the perfect master

■ Dobermann owners need to know that this animal cannot stand injustice. To deserve his esteem, and be able to control it, it is necessary to show security and consistency in all circumstances. If it is not understood and is mistreated it can become dangerous, even with the owner himself.
■ Its training must be carried out competently. The Dobermann does not work sweetly, he is too proud and independent for this. He obeys with love. It is so passionate that you have to know how to motivate it. He will never become a servile dog.
■ When going out, other dogs should be avoided. He does not systematically seek a fight, but if the dog encountered provokes him, he will begrudgingly endure: in the fight, nobody beats him.

■ Show a lot of natural authority and always be righteous.
■ Don’t be afraid of your dog’s reactions; make them understand immediately who is in charge.
■ Teach him to obey since he was a puppy.

  • Being too permissive in his education.
  • Allow strangers to enter the house when you are away.
  • Push him to attack to play or not.
  • Imposing a stressful life on him: even if his nerves are strong, he needs balance.

4. Related breeds and more



Because of his line, the Dobermann is often confused with the Beauce Shepherd , who, however, has a clearly more rustic and rough appearance – which, moreover, makes it his main attraction; its hair is beating, that is, neither satin nor long, but thick and thick and of a length sufficient to form small fringes behind the thighs; its format is rectangular; in short, in the hind limbs it is equipped with a double spur. One is reminiscent of a thoroughbred, while the other is a rustic farm and work animal.

The neophyte also risks confusing the Great Danewith Dobermann; the latter is also smaller than twenty centimeters and weighs about half. The nomenclature of dog breeds developed by R. Triquet and approved by the FCI on June 23, 1967 brought order into the second group, which had become a real hodgepodge, in particular by creating a Plnscher-Schnauzer section , in which the Dobermann finally finds himself with his closest cousins.

Ouestl derive, like Dobermann himself, from the Middle Pinscher . Therefore, starting from this common patriarch, the dog lovers began to catalog the members of the old Pinscher family, while the Dobermann-Pinscher (original Dobermann appellation) conquered numerous followers.

Thus, in 1895, it began to distinguish themGlattahaar-Pinscher (short-haired) from the Rauhaariger-Pinscher (hard-haired). The latter concentrated his attention on himself, acquiring the name Schnauzer-Pinscher for the occasion (Schnauz means muzzle).

In 1907 their supporters founded the Bavarian Schnauzer Klub (which will return to the Pinscher Klub group a little later). The Middle Pinscher was badly damaged by the success of these two “novelties”. Breeders then selected a new, smaller size variety, intended to supply an apartment dog. This competition risked the Middle Pinscher disappearing.
Furthermore, since its staff were decimated during the Second World War, the intervention of the Pinscher Klub president, Werner Jung, was necessary to save them from extinction: starting from 1958 Jung devoted himself exclusively to the breeding of this race.

The Medium Pinscher can currently appear as a “mini Dobermann” ,

especially when it is black and tan (it can also have a red-fawn coat), with its 48 cm at the withers, its 16 kg on average, it fits perfectly into the rhythms of the modern life: he is also a good guardian, very alert, endowed with courage and tenacity.

All those who do not have a suitable environment to accommodate a Dobermann or the firmness needed to guide it, can choose a Medium Pinscher: it is dynamic and has character, while remaining easier to control than the “giant” cousin.

The Middle Schnauzer also has its own giant version,

the Riesenschnauzer , whose origins are no less confused than those of the Dobermann. It probably derives from a large shaggy haired dog used by the butchers and brewers of Munich, and as such it is described with the name “Bayerisher Wolfshund” by Fitzinger, in 1876, in the work Der Hund und sein Rassen .

Moreover, most authors consider the Great Dane’s decisive relationship in the creation of the breed. We also point out the fact that Johan Gallant pointed out the extraordinary resemblance (so amazing that it seems hardly fortuitous) between the Riesenschnauzer and the Bovaro di Roulers (the Belgian version of the Bovaro delle Fiandre), with a more remarkable morphology than the other, but also more large and entirely black.

Be that as it may, this large dog, which measures up to 70 cm and can reach 45 kg, possesses a proud, dominant, independent character and self-assurance that has won him numerous supporters especially in France.
In the same way as Dobermann, it is a pity that Pinschers and Schnauzers are not present more often on dressage grounds. Their history, their energy, their dynamism: everything indicates that they are races born to work.


As regards, however, the cutting of the tail and ears, the legislation prohibiting the cutting of the ears and tail of dogs has officially entered into force since 1 November 2011.
With the entry into force of article 10 of the European Convention for the protection of pets – ratified in Italy with the law 201/2010 -, which adds up to the provisions of the 2009 Martini ordinance, those who violate the ban – be it a veterinarian, a breeder, or the owner of the animal – he is punishable by imprisonment from 3 to 18 months or a fine from 5 thousand to 30 thousand euros.
Article 10 reads as follows:
1. Surgical operations intended to modify the appearance of a pet animal, or aimed at other non-curative purposes, must be prohibited, in particular:
a) cutting the tail;
b) cutting the ears;
c) the severing of the vocal cords;
d) the export of nails and teeth.
2. Exceptions to this prohibition will be authorized only:
a) if a veterinarian considers a non-curative intervention necessary both for veterinary medicine reasons and in the interest of a specific animal;
b) to prevent reproduction.
3. a) interventions during which the animal will try or be susceptible to severe pain must be carried out only under anesthesia and by a veterinarian or under his control;
b) interventions that do not require anesthesia can be performed by a competent person in accordance with national legislation.


For many years the clubs have been concerned about the safety and stability of the Dobermann’s character: this breed in fact cannot let itself go to the slightest error, more than any other, given the often fierce criticisms of the detractors.

The selection of the breeders, at the important annual gatherings of the breeders, is combined with a particular test, called in Germany ZTP , which practically enables the dog to breed. While in the country of origin of the breed the ZTP is mandatory, in Italy it is only voluntary.
Nonetheless, now all breeders and amateurs of the breed prefer to pass this control to their dogs, which ultimately qualifies and ennobles them; however, the ZTP achieved in Italy is recognized in Germany for agreements between the AIAD (Italian Association of Dobermann Amateurs) and the Dobermann Verein .

In order to get their dog admitted to the ZTP, all owners must present an x-ray of the animal’s hip , which proves how dysplasia is present; in this regard, all subjects in whom dysplasia is medium or severe are excluded.
ZTP is divided into two phases, one morphological and one character. Passing this test will be mentioned on the pedigree and transcribed from generation to generation, allowing breeders to guide their selections and buyers to make a reasoned choice.


■ Must not be sentenced to isolation. If he never sees anyone, he can become aggressive.

■ Needs a lot of exercise. Leaving a Dobermann tied up, enclosed in a fence or intended solely for the surveillance of a courtyard is really not recommended. It is not a “machine” to guard! He needs to be next to the owners and live with them, free like all the other dogs.

■ The apartment is not for him.

■ It is quite expensive in terms of maintenance.

■ In the litters, choose the ones that seem more balanced and that have a better type of skin.

■ With other animals in the house, cats in particular are a bit difficult.Not only does the Dobermann not have a natural sympathy towards them and he has a hunter’s drive that pushes him to chase them, but he is jealous when he sees the master caressing them! If your four-legged companion has received adequate education, he will know how to restrain himself, otherwise …

■ The work of Mr. Dobermann was deepened by the Germans, who worked for a long time, through a rigorous selection, to reach the dog we know today. Among his successors, we must mention Goswin Tischler, who founded a kennel, and Otto Gòller, who made the rough primitive dog more refined, making him an excellent athlete.

■ The first Dobermanns made their appearance in 1885, in the small town of Apolda, Germany. Among his ancestors, the Pinscher, the Great Dane, the Beauce Shepherd, the Rottweiler …


■ If the Dobermann turns against his master at the age of four or five months, he must separate.False . It is a passage in the evolution of his personality.

■ Remember the location of everything in the house.
True . He has a great memory and is a great observer.

■ Keeps the machine with great care as it does for the home.
True . He is intractable with those who dare to approach “his” machine.

■ It is widespread mainly in Germany.
False . The greatest concentration is found in the United States. Its success culminated in the early 1980s; it was part of one of the three most valuable breeds.

 A war dog

Many armies have used the Dobermann mainly, of course, in his country of origin: among the six thousand soldier dogs trained by the German army on the eve of the First World War the Dobermanns were as numerous as the German Shepherds.

In the last world war it was with the Americans that this dog stood out most: the Marines, during the Pacific War, were joined by the famous brigade of the Devils dogs , six of which – including Andy, Otto and Rex – acquired a legendary reputation for having managed to evade the tricks of the Japanese soldiers very skilled in disguising themselves fighting in the jungle.

From war dogs – lookouts, from patrol, to rescue or relays that were – the Dobermanns, once demobilized, were easily converted into police auxiliaries.

In this regard, the Baltimore brigade has distinguished itself : the four hundred Dobermanns have contributed to the arrest of at least five hundred criminals and those responsible say that each dog is worth at least six men.

5. Standard del Dobermann

Standard dobermann-300x180

FCI Standard N ° 143 / 14.02.1994
ORIGIN: Germany
USE: Accompaniment, protection and utility dog.
CLASSIFICATION FCI. Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer
dogs. Molossian and Mountain dogs and Cattle dogs. Swiss
Section 1.1 Pinscher and Schnauzer – With working trial


The Dobermann is medium in size, strong in construction and well muscled. For its elegant lines, its proud prowess, its well-tempered character and its resolute expression, it corresponds to the ideal image of the dog.


The Dobermann, especially the male, is practically inscribed in a square. In the male, the length of the trunk (measured from the tip of the shoulder to the tip of the buttock) must not exceed the height at the withers by more than 5% (in females no more than 10%).


The Dobermann is basically lovable and peaceful; in the family, he is affectionate and loves children. We are looking for a medium temperament and a medium bite, just like a medium threshold of irritability. Easy to educate and zealous for the job, the Dobermann must be efficient, courageous and well-tempered. Since he is very attentive to everything that is going on around him (his attention is adapted to the circumstances), you want him to be confident and fearless.


Skull:the skull is strong and in harmony with the whole of the dog; seen from above it has the shape of a truncated cone. Seen from the front, the transverse line of the top of the skull must be almost horizontal and not descend on the sides towards the ears. The profile of the nasal bridge is prolonged almost in a straight line from that of the skull, which then descends towards the nape forming a slight rounding. The eyebrow arches are well developed without being protruding. The metopic suture is still visible. The occipital bone should not be too obvious. Seen from the front and from above, the lateral faces of the skull must not give the impression of being protruding (plump). The slight lateral curve of the maxilla and zygomatic bones must harmoniously join with the length of the skull. Muscles are highly developed.
Stop: not very developed, but perfectly perceptible.

Truffle: well developed, wider than round, with large nostrils, without, overall, being protruding. In black dogs it is black, in brown dogs it is of a lighter tone.

Muzzle: well proportioned with respect to the skull, and highly developed, the muzzle is high. The slit of the mouth must go up to the level of the molars. Even at the level of the upper and lower incisors, the muzzle must have a good width.

Lips: they must be firm and smooth, well adherent to the jaws and ensure a perfect closing of the mouth. Dark pigment; in brown dogs it may be of a slightly lighter tone.

Jaws / Teeth:the upper and lower jaws are powerful and wide. Scissor bite with 42 teeth corresponding to the dental formula, of normal development.

Eyes: medium size, oval, dark in color. A slightly lighter tone is allowed in brown dogs. The eyelids adhere well to the shape of the eyeball. Eyelid edges with eyelashes.

Ears: attached high and cut to a length well proportioned to the head, they are carried upright. In countries where the cutting of the ears is prohibited, the intact ear has the same value, for the judgment, as the cut ear (a medium-sized ear is sought, whose front edge is well adherent to the cheek).

NECK: of a length well proportioned to the body and head, it is dry and well muscled. Its upper profile draws an elegant arch. Tall and distinguished habit.


Garrese: especially in males, it must be clearly outgoing; its height and length determine the upper line which is ascending from the rump.

Back: solid and short, of good length and well muscled.

Kidney: of good length and well muscled. The female may have a slightly longer kidney, to make room for the breasts.

Croup: starting from the sacrum in the direction of the insertion of the tail, the croup is very little, almost imperceptibly, inclined; with a well rounded appearance, it is not so horizontal nor visibly inclined. Of good width with powerful musculature.

Chest:the height and length of the chest must be well proportioned to the length of the trunk; with its slightly circled ribs, its height must almost reach half the size measured at the withers. It is of a good width and particularly well developed towards the front (chest).

Lower line: after the posterior end of the sternum up to the pelvis the belly is clearly marked.

TAIL: attached high, it is short, being cut so as to keep two caudal vertebrae visible. In countries where the law prohibits the cutting of the tail, it can be kept intact.


– FRONT: overall, seen from all sides, they are almost straight and perpendicular to the ground; they are of strong construction

Shoulders: the scapula, firmly adhering to the thorax, well muscled on both sides of the scapular spine, dominates the thorny apophysis of the dorsal vertebrae. As oblique as possible and well directed backwards, it forms an angle of about 50 ° on the horizontal

arm: of good length and well muscled. The shoulder-humeral angle varies between 105 ° and 110 °.

Elbows: well adherent to the body, not deviated outwards.

Forearm: strong and straight, well muscled. Its length is in harmony with the whole body

Carpus: solid

Metacarpus:solid framework; seen from the front, in perpendicularity; seen in profile, inclination barely hinted (maximum 10 °).

Front foot: short with clenched and arched toes (cat feet). Short, black nails.

REAR: as a whole, seen from behind, due to the powerful musculature of the pelvis (hip and rump), the Dobermann gives the impression of being wide and rounded. The muscles that go from the pelvis to the thigh and the leg give an equally appreciable width in the region of the thigh, the knee and the leg. The hindquarters are powerful, perpendicular to the ground and parallel.

Thigh: of a good length and width and strongly muscled. Good hip angle. The thigh forms an angle of approximately 80 ° to 85 ° on the horizontal.

Knee: the knee joint, formed by the thigh, leg and patella, is robust. The angle of the knee reaches 130 °.

Leg: of medium length, in harmony with the length of the back.

Garretti: medium strong, parallel, they form an angle of the hock of about 140 ° between the leg bone and the metatarsal bone.

Metatarsus: short, perpendicular to the ground.

Back foot: as for the front foot, the toes are short, well closed and arched. Short, black nails.

GAIT: the pace is of a particular importance both for the performance and for the external appearance. The step is elastic, elegant, soft, loose and covers a lot of ground. The front legs stretch forward as much as possible. The hindquarters give the necessary thrust for the amplitude and elasticity of the movements. The dog simultaneously advances the front on one side and the rear of the other. The back, ligaments and joints are resistant.

SKIN: the skin, everywhere perfectly stretched, is well pigmented

HAIR COAT : the hair is short, rough and thick. Smooth and well laid, it is regularly distributed over the entire surface of the body. No undercoat is allowed.

COLOR: the colors are: black or brown, with well-marked and clearly delimited rust shades. The tan markings are found on the muzzle, in the form of spots on the cheeks and above the eyes, on the throat, on the chest (two spots), on the metacarpals and metatarsals, on the feet, on the inner face of the thighs, around the anus and at the tip of the buttocks.


Height: Males 68 – 72 cm., Females 63 – 68 cm.
For both sexes, a medium size is sought.
Weight: Males around 40 – 45 kg., Females around 32 – 35 kg

DEFECTS: any deviation from the above must be considered as a defect that will be penalized according to its seriousness.

General aspect:
• Sexual characteristics not very pronounced
• Little substance, too light
• Too heavy
• High on the limbs
• Fragile bone

• Too much: strong, too narrow, too long
• Stop: too much / too little marked
• Nasal bridge: sheepskin
• Transverse line of the skull: very descending to the side
• Jaw: weakly developed
• Eye: round or Chinese style, light eye, protruding or sunken eye.
• Cheeks: protruding
• Lips: non-adherent
• Ears: attached too high or too low
• Lip commissure released

• A little short, too short, too long (disharmonious)
• Skin too abundant, dewlap
• Concave neck known as deer
• Back not sufficiently firm, depressed , carp, too long as a whole
• Humped croup
• Barrel ribs, flat
• Chest too low or too tight
• Chest too underdeveloped
• Tail attached too high or too low
• Bottom line too much or too little raised

• Too much or too little front or rear
angulation • Low elbows
• Position and length of bones and joints incompatible with the standard
• Left-handed feet, doggies • Cow hocks
or barrel or too closed
• Feet open or squashed, insufficiently developed toes, clear nails

• Too light tan or not clearly delimited or dirty (carbonate)
• Mask too dark
• Large black spots on the limbs
• Spots barely visible or too extensive on the chest
• Long, soft, faded or wavy
hair • Patches without hair or with sparse hair
• Hair in large backwards especially on the trunk
• Under fur visible

Behavior – character:
• Lack of psychic balance
• Temperament too strong
• Excessive biting
• Threshold of irritability too high or too low

• A difference from Standard up to 2 cm more or less, will be penalized with a lower qualification
• Irregular movement, short step, rigid
• Ambio


General appearance: marked inversion of characteristics linked to sex
Eye: yellow eye ( bird of prey), eyes of different colors
Teeth: enognatism, prognathism, pincer closure, number of teeth that does not reach that required by the dental formula.
Cloak:white spots, dog with fur of a very accentuated length or of a very marked undulation, hair clearly thinned or wide glabrous patches.
Character: fearful, nervous or aggressive dog
Size: more than 2 cm more or less than the Standard deviation

NB: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum

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